Dopamine- Maxine

I chose this topic because it was interesting to know what makes us human beings happy and feel good. Dopamine affects teenagers more than anyone because this a stage of hormones and mood swings, and dopamine has a big part of making you feel good and happy. It affects me greatly because as a teenager, there are more chances of me and other teenagers to feel the effects of dopamine. Before I did some research, I already knew that dopamine was a chemical that makes you feel good. Since there is an increase of dopamine in teenagers, it can cloud the judgement.

 I learned that dopamine isn’t just fun and games. Too much dopamine can potentially prevent you from thinking of the dangers from making a decision, and can damage your future. I honestly didn’t realize that dopamine can be one of the causes of reckless behaviour and can potentially damage your future. This also made me realize that there is always something negative about something even though it seems good. Now if I see teenagers do rebellious things, I partly know why they do it. One solution to this problem is to think twice before doing anything. 


Alzheimer’s Disease – Juria Katakawa

The health issue I would like to present today is known as Alzheimer’s disease. I choose this issue because it is commonly known world wide and many seniors are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. It is also predicted that the amount of patients with this disease will increase dramatically in the following years. Another reason I selected this issue is because my grandfather was also had this disease. It was very painful and tragic to watch him go through the effects. Previously, I have seen many TV shows and movies about patients with Alzheimer’s and it deeply affected me of how people have to deal with the pain, mentally and physically. Alzheimer’s usually affects only people aged 65 and above but mentally and emotionally affects teenagers who are related to one suffering. It is devastating to watch someone go through the pain while you can not do anything to help. Teens should also be concerned about the amount of our seniors that feel this pain in order to hopefully find a solution some day. This still affects me today that my grandfather experienced these terrible times of forgetting me and our family. It was hard to watch him deal with the loss of his memory and life.Therefore, I believe that we should raise more awareness about it by understanding the symptoms and the responses of Alzheimer’s disease. 

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia and affects people 65 years old and above where they have problems with memory, thinking and behaviour. In 1901, doctor Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist noticed a patient in the hospital bed had some peculiar problems such as sleeping problems, mood changes, memory problems and increasing confusion. When she passed away he was able to test his ideas that her symptoms were caused by the problems in her brain. Under the microscope, he found differences in brain tissue in the form of plaques (misfolded proteins) and neurofibrillary tangles. The plaques and tangles worked together to damage the brain cells communication. The time it takes for AD to progress varies from person to person, so it’s hard to predict how long someone with the condition will live. Usually, older adults live three to four years with Alzheimer’s disease. Younger adults who get the disease may live with the condition for 10 years or more. Currently, there are no cure towards this disease but there are several drugs to show some modest improvements such as boosting levels of cells communications in the brain or improving the bodies immune system to fight back or by slowing the progression of the disease. However, these drugs have several side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, loss of appetite and sleep disturbances. Other solutions may cause little improvements and ways to make the patient’s life easier. These may include, solving brain puzzles, getting the right nutrients, exercising and creating a safe environment. The more education you have, the lower your risk of getting Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore it is best to keep brain active in old age by doing activities such as taking classes, learning languages and playing musical instruments. Alzheimer’s worsens over time and people experience greater memory loss and more difficulties that affect their lifestyle. In the first stage of Alzheimer’s it affects your short term memory. Problems can include wandering and getting lost, trouble handling money and paying bills, taking longer to complete normal daily tasks, and personality and behavior changes. Later on when the disease become more moderate, damage occurs in areas of the brain that control language, reasoning, sensory processing, and conscious thought. Memory loss and confusion grow worse, and people begin to have problems recognising family and friends. They may be unable to learn new things, carry out multi step tasks such as getting dressed, or cope with new situations. In addition, people at this stage may have hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia and may behave impulsively. Ultimately when the disease is severe, plaques and tangles spread throughout the brain, and brain tissue shrinks significantly. People with severe Alzheimer’s cannot communicate and are completely dependent on others for their care. Near the end, the person will have trouble with their heart rate and breathing and may be in bed most or all of the time as the body shuts down. As mentioned earlier, Alzheimer’s disease does not only affect the patient but the caretakers of the patient as well. It is proven that Alzheimer’s caregivers have an increased likelihood of physical strain, mental and emotional stress, depression, financial problems, and family/interpersonal issues. Unfortunately, the cost for treating the disease continues to rise. In 2016 that figure reached about $236 billion. The number of Americans with the disease is expected to increase in the years ahead. It’s estimated that AD may cost the U.S. more than $1 trillion by 2050. 

Some interesting facts about this issue are:

  1. Women have a higher risk of getting this disease. Nearly twice as many women have Alzheimer’s and worsens more quickly in women as men.
  2. Alzheimer’s is the 6th-leading cause of death in the U.S., and the 5th-leading cause of death in adults aged 65 and over.
  3.  More than 5 million Americans have Alzheimers and by 2050 can go up to 16 million.
  4. This disease kills more people than breast cancer and postate cancer combined.

I believe that this disease is very serious and should be taken so in order to stop risking our seniors to end their life this way. To help solve this problem, you should spread the word about the effects and facts of Alzheimer’s and raise awareness and hopefully find a solution one day. Additionally, you should be concerned about how Alzheimer’s was discovered more than a century ago and we still have not found a right cure. I believe that as young citizens, we should start acting in small steps to help ourselves and others to prevent us from getting diagnosed with this disease in the future. 

This is a comparison of a healthy brain and a brain going through sever Alzheimer’s disease


Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)- Yoomee Shin

The health issue I would like to discuss today is known as dissociative identity disorder (DID). This issue is important because as I was previously, not many people are aware of the severe mental disorder. Those who are aware may accuse the disorder of being fake and blame patients of intentionally forgetting things to fake their illness. I picked this issue because I thought it was very interesting and wanted to further investigate as I clarify my understanding of the overall disorder. DID does not affect my family and I currently as no member of my family have been diagnosed with it. However, I may encounter a patient of DID in the future or/and as my family grows, a family member may be possibly diagnosed with DID. Before researching upon the issue, I lacked great understanding, yet apprehended that patients obtain several distinct personalities. From watching the movie Split, I used to think that people with DID has to be feared because of their violent acts. In fact, the movie portrays the most extreme aspects of the disorder and distributes the message that society needs to alarm themselves against DID patients. People with DID are rarely dangerous. In fact, research has shown that patients are more of a threat to themselves than others. This connects to the current unit of respect, as fearing a certain population due to a specific characteristic lacks tolerance. The delusional understanding of the disorder maintained by the movie has reduced respect and appreciation toward DID patients and their exceptional abilities, accomplishments and qualities. This issue affects teenagers with and without DID. Teenagers with DID who experience amnesia may not remember their entire childhood, and is left a major mystery to inquire on their own. However, teenagers who do remember may still be suffering from their childhood experiences. Teenagers experiencing depersonalization likely feel extremely baffled of their identity. This is important because teenage years are when most individuals strive to learn and define who they are as an individual. Teenagers without the disorder has the potential to to create delusions and false understanding of the disorder itself, as I did previously.

Dissociative identity disorder, formerly referred as multiple personality disorder, is a severe mental illnesses  wherein a person’s identity is split into two or more distinct personality states. They create alters, or different personality states, of different gender, age, possibly accents, memories, functions, names and other traits, as if they were a new identity. Number of alter depends on the person, but at least two is needed (host and alter) to be diagnosed with DID. Some alters help the individual deal with trauma, while others dissociate, or escape, from reality. Over the years, professionals have noticed common alters that occur among patients. Alters are endless, but common ones includes:

  1. Host: alter that has executive control over the body. The host may or may not be the individual’s original personality.
  2. Child and adolescent alters: young alters that often acts as if they were a child. This alter is one of the most common alter and is often identified in therapy.
  3. Protector: alters of any age, created to tolerate the individual’s intolerable situations. These alters are often braver or tougher than the original personality
  4. Persecutor alters: alter modeled after the abuser. The alter often compose negative messages that blame the patient for its past abuse and declares that they need to die to pay for it. This is often the alter that attempts suicide or self harm to the host.
  5. Disabled alters: the alter who are disabled when the body is physically capable. A blind or mute alter may be created in response to an abuser’s instructions such as “don’t talk”, or “you didn’t see that”. These alters can regain their sight or hearing, after they work through the memories of what caused their disabilities.

This picture perfectly demonstrates the differences in each alter. Each alter consists of varying gender, age, preference, and more.

I was able to learn that the main cause for DID is severe trauma during early childhood. These are often physical, sexual or emotional abuses, and are commonly extreme and/or repetitive. Symptoms of DID resemble other illnesses such as bipolar and schizophrenia, making the disorder difficult to diagnose. Symptoms include depersonalization (feeling as if you are being detached from yourself), amnesia (loss of memory) of certain time period, event or people, depression, mood swings, anxiety, panic attacks and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; when a victim is triggered by a traumatic event and the event continues to stay with the individual by replaying the event long after it has occurred).

Some interesting facts about this issue are:

  1. Approximately 0.01%-1% of the population is diagnosed with DID but 7% of the world’s population has some sort of undiagnosed form of DID
  2. DID diagnoses occur 9 times more often in females than male
  3. Most diagnoses occur at the age of 30 (most diagnoses occur 5-10 years after the onset of symptoms)


While there are no effective cures at the moment, patients may receive successful long term treatments if they stay committed. therapy, medications, hypnotherapy, and adjunctive therapies such as art or movement therapy are all different types of effective treatment.
Because symptoms are extremely similar to other disorders such as anxiety and depression, patients may be treated using the same drugs prescribed for those disorders. Antidepressants or anti-anxiety medicine is an example of a drug prescribed to the patient for beneficial results.

I believe that it is important to acknowledge and understand that DID is not a harm to you. Patients are more of a harm to themselves than yourself. You should also be willing to accept them for who they are and restrict yourself against discriminating them for their mental illnesses. To help solve this problem, you should never abuse children (or anyone else, for that matter). If you see anyone committing this act, you should strive to protect the child and prevent the abuser from repeatedly abusing the child again. Personally, I plan in doing so in future situation when needed.

Skin Cancer – Ralph Hermans

The health issue I would like to present today is skin cancer. There are 2 main types of skin cancer which are called: Melanoma and Cell Carcinoma. Awareness of cancer is important because the numbers are increasing by the minute. I picked this topic because my dad has experienced cell carcinoma cancer multiple times. The positive part is that he realized it fast enough and got it removed every time. Cell carcinoma is the less dangerous cancer out of the 2. Therefore I have decided to research this topic since there is a large chance that my sisters and I could get it sometime during our lifetime. As we have the same DNA, it is possible that we might have inherited the genes that allow skin cancer to get to us fast. This can affect people our age since we don’t realize how bad the sun’s ultraviolet rays or also can be called UV rays. We don’t realize this because only in the next 10-15 years we will be able to notice any skin cancer symptoms since it takes that amount of time to spread internally throughout our bodies. As you can see below, there is a diagram of how the UV rays affect your DNA within your skin cells when you spend too much time in the sun without covering yourself.

 

Cell carcinoma isn’t that dangerous as long as you get rid of it as fast as possible. This brings me to Melanoma, this cancer is a lot worse because getting cured sometimes can’t be done if you wait too long to get treated. This means that getting Melanoma can be a life-threatening type of cancer that has to be treated as early as possible. During my research, I learned that some cancers can be gotten rid of easier than others and that some are not always life threatening. Some interesting facts about this illness are:

  1.  Around 2 to 3 million people are diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer annually worldwide.  
  2. Approximately 132,000 people with melanoma skin cancer are diagnosed annually.
  3.  It is said that around 1 out of 5 Americans will develop skin cancer sometime during their lifespan.

I believe that to prevent skin cancer you should be careful and cover your body from too much exposure to the sun. The main symptom would be when you have an open wound on your skin that doesn’t seem to heal. To help solve this problem, you can wear sunscreen and use a hat to protect yourself or if you already have skin cancer you should get treated by a dermatologist who would probably give you photodynamic therapy. This is a treatment that uses medicine and a specific type of laser to kill cancer cells in the affected area. In conclusion, this form of cancer is important for you to know about to enable you to take care of your body by covering up and not being exposed to too much sun radiation.

 


The Mandela Effect by Chloe Kim

I chose this issue because this has probably affected some of the people in our grade, and it has already taken place with me. This expands my learning as it makes me more aware of mind related tricks/illusions that happen due to the mind’s complexity. It is important that others are aware of this as well as an explanation to false memories they have in common with a group of people. This affects teenagers as the Mandela Effect can take place with anyone at any time, for several different reasons.

I learned that the Mandela Effect was named after an incident where a group of people believed hearing of Nelson Mandela’s death and even seeing his funeral on TV when, actually, it never happened. It takes place due to seeing alternatives of something too often (such as Berenstain Books, which are thought to be spelled Berenstein possible because of other words such as Einstein), if someone around you says something looks different it may influence your opinion, or because of cognitive dissonance which is when one’s thoughts, opinions or beliefs may change in result of a change in your behavior or attitude. I think that the Mandela Effect is very interesting as it is more than just false memory – it takes place with a group of people. It is interesting that a group of people that can be completely unrelated to each other can all share a false memory. Now I am more aware of the possible tricks a mind can play on one, while the saying is usually about trusting what you see. I have a broader perspective when it comes to people having a false memory now.

Image result for mandela effect pikachu

Very common example of the Mandela Effect: <Pokémon> character Pikachu’s tail never originally had a black tip.

Bulimia Nervosa-Sarah

I chose Bulimia Nervosa because I knew a friend who experienced this disorder and I also thought it would be an interesting topic to research about. This affects me because since it is most likely for girls to get it I wanted to make sure I was aware and I also have a sister so I can tell her about that too. I already knew that Bulimia nervosa was a life threatening eating disorder and you purposefully make yourself vomit out your food, I also knew that it was most likely for women to get it than men. This connects to previous learnings because during the nutrition unit we learned that you need a certain amount of a specific food group and when you have bulimia nervosa you cant get that because you either aren’t eating that food and burning up the calories you received from eating that or you are vomiting up that food. This issue is relevant to me because I am a girl so I have a higher chance of getting this eating disorder than others and also it is important because this is life threatening and since I am aware about this topic I can now aware other people about it and prevent people from continuing. This affects teenagers because some teenagers go through really bad insecurity about themselves since they are experiencing that they could then lead to this.

From this issue I learned that I should eat the right amount of foods all the time and that I shouldn’t stop myself from eating because that can lead to very bad causes. This expanded my learning because its given me more ways on how to keep my body healthy and also to keep my health in good shape. My opinion about this issue is they should aware people more about this because it has very bad effects in the end and its common for girls to get it. What surprised me about this issue is that there are actually lost of different symptoms and signs of how to tell when someone has bulimia nervosa. This can be applied to real life situations because when someone has these signs and symptoms and I can then tell what they are going through and also warn them and aware them about what can happen to them and also help them to stop. Some problems about this issue are that its very easy to get because most girls suffer with insecurity and that can easily cause them to become bulimic. This influences my thinking about wellness because I now know that I have to get my right amount of food everyday and I have to balance the amount of workout I have and the amount of food that I eat. 

Suicide: Why people do it, how to help, and warning signs- Fiona Foley

I chose this issue because I wanted to understand why people choose to commit suicide.  Another reason that I wanted to do do this was because of the book, 13 Reasons Why, by Jay Asher. The book is about a teenage girl who commits suicide and sends tapes out to the 13 people who had an influence o her decisions.  This issue affects teenagers because all teens go through stages where they feel uncertain and scared and uncomfortable about themselves and the life that they are living and one thought that probably goes through their brain is about suicide and maybe death.  I learned that people kill themselves to get away from the problem, they have made a big mistake, they are depressed, or they just want to die.

I learned that there are many reasons that people commit suicide, social concerns and mental health concerns. I also learned that you can stop a person from killing themselves by simply listening to them and showing that you care.  This topic is relevant to wellness because one cause of suicide is depression and depression is an indication of mental health problems.

This is a semi colin, it is a symbol of surviving or stopping suicidal thoughts or attempts.   The semi colin is used because the author could have ended the sentence but she continued it. The person who survived or chose to stop the attempts and thoughts could have stopped their life forever but instead they chose to continue it.

Color Blindness / Catarina

Color blindness is a rare condition identified as the inability to clearly identify different colors of the color wheel. The difficulties can be low but sometimes dangerous. Many people confuse this term as the same thing as compelete blindness which is a common misunderstanding.

In the human eye there are “receptor cells” called cones, these are found in the retina (a light sensitive tissue found in the back of your eye, that identifies light rays). Each person should have three types of cones, red, green and blue. This is what enables most people to see all colors. Any damage or abnormal deficiency in the cones can lead to unusual color vision.

There are nine types of color blindness. The first four lie under the catagory of red-green color blindness, these are. Protanomaly, this is when the cone is abnormal and the colors red, yellow and orange are veiwed as darker than usual. This is a mild diagnoses and only affects 1 percent of males. The next is Protanopia similar, but red is identified as black and orange, yellow and green are seen as the same color. Deuteranomaly and Deuteranopia similar to each other Deuteranopia is a major colorblindness when you are only able to identify brownish yellow, red and mix green with beige. There is also another stage of color blindness that involves Blue – Yellow. Tritanomaly is the difficulty to see blue as it appears green and yellow can be confused as red and pink. This is an extremely rare disorder. Tritanopia people who lack blue cone cells, their color appears as greener also difficult to identify yellow and red from pink. Last stage is Compelete color blindness Rod monochromacy or achromatopsia and Cone monochromacy the most severe of the two, Rod monochromacy or achromatopsia. This disorder is diagnosed at birth and is when people see the world in black and white, this virus can make people uncomfortable in bright enviroments and also might suffer photophobia (bright lights damage your pupils).

INTERESTING FACT 1.8% of males have color blindness when 1 out of 200 women have color blindness 4.5%  percent of entire population

Most color blindness comes from genetices or is presented at birth. Color vision problems can also be attained by natural causes such as, aging, any injury in the eye and side effects from medicine. Symptoms are not being able to see all colors and not having the ability to identify different shades of a color. In addition color blindness is most commonly found in males. As an acception there are also young girls that atain color blindness but that eases as they grow. Although most people with colorblindness are dont improve overtime and sometimes worsen over time.

Unfortunatley inherited color blindness may not be treated permanently. Although there are Color Blind glasses that can temporarly let a person see color for the duration the glasses are on for.

While researching this concept I learnt that there are many different categories of color blindness and how people can be diagnosed with color blindness. I also learnt that color blindness is a serious issue for people’s daily lives, it is a struggle for them to identify such things as a stop sign red-green while driving.The reason why I chose to do this project was that my father and I are both color blind I have very mild colorblindness, but my dad has a hard time identifying colors. I was interested to find out what stage of colorblindnes I was, and was surprised to find that my color blindness stage is Tritanopia.

Image result for color blindness Image result for color blindness eye

 


Sleep Walking – Karen Mukai

  I chose this issue because I used to sleepwalk and I wanted to know more about it. I know that sleepwalking is when you walk or do different things while you are sleeping, and it can be very dangerous. Sleeping is important for your health and I learned about it during previous years so it is interesting to know what happens during sleep. Sleepwalking affects ages from 4 years old to 13 the most.

  Typically, the sleepwalker’s eyes are open with a glassy stare as he roams the house. If you question him, he’ll be slow to respond or not respond at all. When you get him back to bed without waking him up, he usually won’t recall the event. When someone sleepwalks, they might quietly walk around their room. Or they might run or attempt to “escape.” I didn’t know that when someone sleep walks they can also do other such as driving a car and not only walking. I don’t understand how your body moves while in your sleep. People don’t remember what they did during the night while they are sleeping and you might do something bad, some solutions are to lock your door before you go to bed so you won’t walk around your house or try to leave. Doing bad things to your health can cause sleepwalking.